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    Week of 26MAY Automatic Transmissions


    An automatic transmission performs the same function as a manual transmission, but it “shifts gears” and “releases the clutch” automatically and more smoothly using a torque converter or a fluid coupling. An automatic transmission also uses compact planetary gearsets instead of large helical gearsets. Most modern vehicles use an automatic transmission (or transaxle) because it saves the driver from having to move a shift lever and depress a clutch pedal.

    Today’s automatic transmission are computer controlled, Solenoids are used to operate hydraulic circuits to engage each gear ratio. The transmission, engine, and body control modules sense engine speed (rpms); load (engine vacuum); road speed; and other engine, suspension, and brake input signals to determine shift points.

    After studying this unit, students on their own will be able to:

    Identify the basic components of an automatic transmission

    Describe the function and operation of the major parts of an automatic transmission

    Trace the flow of power through an automatic transmission

    Compare the different types of automatic transmissions

    Correctly answer ASE type questions requiring a knowledge of automatic transmission operation and construction

    Please view the following videos and answer the review questions

     Understanding CVT ! - YouTube

    Automatic Transmission, How it works ? - YouTube


    1. List eight major parts of an automatic transmission, explain the function of each.
    2. An automatic transmission uses the following method to transmit power:
      1. Friction
      2. Fluid
      3. Gears
      4. All the above
    3. What are the four main components of automatic transmission construction?
    4. A(n) _____ is a fluid clutch that provides a means of coupling and uncoupling the engine from the transmission.
    5. Which part of a torque converter drives the turbine?
      1. Band
      2. Stator
      3. Impeller
      4. None of the above 
    1. Torque multiplication occurs when the impeller is spinning faster than the turbine. True or false?
    2. What is the stator support?
    3. Describe the movement of a planetary gearset.
    4. Solenoids and servos are friction devices that drive or lock planetary gearset members. True or false?
    5. What is a servo?


     For your information:

    From: David Alvarez [mailto:david.a@carbrain.com]
    Sent: Wednesday, May 20, 2020 1:55 PM
    To: Nicole Mora <nmora@pittsburg.k12.ca.us>
    Subject: CarBrain.com is Offering (2) $1,000 Scholarship Nationwide!
    Dear Nicky Mora,
    My name is David Alvarez, and I am the Community Manager here at CarBrain.com.
    Over the last two years, we've been running an initiative to reach young people by offering scholarships to students with an interest in the automobile industry.
    As I was doing research, I noticed you have a page where you link to external, or private, scholarships:

    We thought it would be a good idea to reach out to your school as a potential avenue to promote our initiative.
    We’re doing a promotion for our CarBrain.com & DamagedCars.com Scholarships:
    To be eligible to apply students must:
    1. Essay must be original and unique.
    2. Essay must be at least 750 words.
    3. Applicant must be at least 18 years of age.
    4. Applicant must be currently enrolled as a student at an accredited high school, college, or university in the United States.
    5. Applicant must be a legal resident of the United States.
    6. Application deadline: April 1, 2020.
    7. Winner Announcement: April 30, 2020.
    Essay topics can be found in the respective scholarship pages!
    We will review all essay submissions and select the winner(s) based on merit!
    Scholarship Amount: $1,000
    Number of Scholarships: 2
    Deadline: April 1st, 2021 (recurring every year)
    All submissions are to be sent to: scholarship@carbrain.com and / or scholarship@damagedcars.com
    If you think these two opportunities would be a good match for your student body, would you please include a link in your scholarships page:

    Thank you, and have a great day!
    David Alvarez
    Community Manager



    Week 18MAY   Manual Transmissions Technology


    Automatic transmissions use hydraulic pressure and sensing devices to shift gears—engine speed and load are detected and used to determine shift points. Automatic transmissions also use a fluid coupling instead of a clutch. A manual transmission must be shifted by hand to change the amount of torque going to the various parts of the drivetrain. It is normally bolted to the clutch housing at the rear of the engine.

    A transaxle combines both the transmission and the differential into a single housing. It is commonly used in front-wheel-drive vehicles. A transaxle can contain either a manual or an automatic transmission.

    As you are aware, the clutch disc rotates the transmission input shaft using torque using torque from the gas engine or motor-generator. Gears inside the transmission transfer this power in the form of torque rotating the vehicle’s drive wheels. A shift lever (or paddle shift buttons) allows the driver to select which set of manual transmission gears to engage. A manual transmission that uses electronic or automated shifting can automatically engage the clutch for gear changes. New designs allow for uninterrupted power flow through drivelines as gear changes are initiated by the manual transmission control module.

    After studying this unit, a student on their own will be able to:

                    >Describe gear operating principals

                    > identify and define all major parts of a manual transmission

                    > Explain the fundamental operation of a manual transmission

                    >Compare the construction of different types of manual transmissions

                    >Trace the power flow through transmission gears

                    >Explain the purpose and operation of a transmission overdrive ratio

                    > Correctly answer ASE type questions requiring a knowledge of M/T operating system    


    Please watch the following presentations:

       Clutch, How does it work ? - YouTube

            MANUAL TRANSMISSION | How it Works - YouTube

             Manual Transmission, How it works ? - YouTube

    Answer the following questions using the information provided.

    1. List eight major parts of a manual transmission. EXPAIN the function of each.
    2. Define the tern “Gear ratio”.
    3. How is a gear ratio calculated? Give an example.
    4. A certain manual transmission’s drive gear has 12 teeth and the driven gear has 72 teeth. What is the gear ratio in this situation?
      1. 3:1
      2. 6:1
      3. 2:1
      4. 4:1
    5. Approximate manual transmission gear ratios are _____ for first, _____ for second, _____ for high and _____ for reverse.
    6. Gear reduction results when a small gear drives a larger gear to increase turning force. Ture or false?
    7. The teeth on _____ gears are machined at an angle to the centerline of the gear shaft.
    8. A manual transmission synchronizer is used to;
      1. Prevent gear clashing or grinding
      2. Loch output gear to the output shaft
      3. Both of the above
      4. None of the above
    9. Describe the two major typed of transmission shift linkages.
    10. Why is an overdrive ratio used?




    Week of 11MAY

    Heating and Air Conditioning Fundamentals

    Last unit, Cooling Systems, students gained an understanding on how engine heat is moved to the outside air for dispersal. This unit will revisit many of those principals from last week.

    The term “air conditioning” generally means to control the temperature, humidity, and the flow of air in the passage compartment of a vehicle. An automotive air conditioning system uses a refrigerant system, a heating system, and a ventilation system to provide a comfortable environment in all weather conditions.

    The refrigerant system uses a confined gas to provide cool, dehumidified (dried) air.

    The heating system uses heat from the engine cooling system to supply warm air.

    The ventilation system carries outside air into the vehicle.

    These three systems work together to provide air conditioning.

    After studying this unit, students on their own will be able to:

                    >Explain the principals of refrigeration

                    >Describe the four cycles of refrigeration

                    >Describe the high and low sides of an air conditioning system

                    >Explain the basic function and construction of each major part of a typical heating and air conditioning system.

                    >Summarize the operation and interaction of heating, ventilation and AC systems

                    > Correctly answer ASE type questions requiring knowledge of the above.

    Please review this video and be prepared to answer the following questions:

                    How a Car AC System Works - For Beginners - YouTube

    1. The three basic states of states of matter are____, _____, and _____.
    2. Explain the three methods of heat transfer.
    3. Heat always moves from the colder object to the warmer object. True or false?


    How the heck does A/C actually cool air? | SCIENCE GARAGE - YouTube


    1. What is a BTU?
    2. _____, the opposite of _____, occurs when a vapor changes back to a liquid.
    3. This substance circulates inside an air conditioning system.
      1. Refrigerant
      2. R-12
      3. R-134a
      4. All the above
    4. List and explain the eight basic parts of a refrigeration system.
    5. Which of the following is NOT a function of an air conditioning system
      1. Cools air
      2. Circulates air
      3. Humidifies air
      4. Cleans air
    6. Describe the high and low side of an air conditioning system.
    7. How does the air conditioning compressor turn on and off?




    Week of 04MAY   Cooling Systems

    This unit begins by explaining the design, construction and operation of cooling systems. You must fully understand how different cooling systems work before learning to service and repair them.

    A modern passenger vehicle can have several cooling system types, each designed to control the operating temperature of a mechanical and electrical assembly. Many assemblies on today’s vehicles generate internal heat during operation, including the internal combustion engine, a supercharger or turbocharger, an HV battery or the huge hybrid drive motor-generator.

    Without a properly operating cooling system, an engine can “self-destruct” in a matter of minutes. Internal engine parts can overheat and partially melt, causing the engine to “lock up” or seize (reciprocating assembly no longer moves freely).

    After studying this unit, a student on their own will be able to:

    Summarize the functions of cooling systems

    Explain the operation and construction of major cooling system components found in modern vehicles

    Compare cooling system design variations

    Explain the function of antifreeze

    Identify safety procedures to follow when working on cooling systems

    Correctly answer ASE type test questions on cooling systems found in modern passenger vehicles

    Please view the following:


    How Engine Cooling System Works - YouTube

    1. List and explain five major parts of a cooling system.
    2. Typically, an engine’s operating temperature is between _____ and _____ degrees Fahrenheit
    3. Which of the following does NOT relate to radiator construction?
      1. Core
      2. Filler neck
      3. Tanks
      4. Impeller

     ENGINE COOLING | How It Works - YouTube

    1. Explain the differences between DOWNFLOW and CROSSFLOW radiators.
    2. List two functions of a radiator cap.
    3. A (n) ______ is a temperature-sensitive switch that controls an electric engine cooling fan.
    4. Why is a radiator shroud used?
    5. Summarize the operation of a cooling system thermostat.
    6. List four functions of antifreeze.
    7. For ideal cooling, a mixture of _____ is typical
      1. 30% water, 70% antifreeze
      2. 50% water, 50% antifreeze
      3. 20% water, 80% antifreeze
      4. 70% water, 30% antifreeze

    By 09MAY


    Week of 27APR Exhaust Systems

    The Exhaust System performs several important functions. It quiets engine operation by muffling the sound of exhaust gases shooting out of exhaust ports in the cylinder heads. It also carries exhaust gases from the engine to the rear of the vehicle without leakage. If exhaust gases were to leak out under the floor pan, toxic exhaust fumes could be pulled into the vents of the passenger compartment. This makes proper exhaust system repair extremely important!

    The Exhaust System performs several other functions. Toxic fumes (unburned, partially burned and excessively burned petroleum-based chemicals) remaining in the engine are treated and purified by the exhaust system. The exhaust system also gives feedback on the percentage of oxygen in burned gases to calculate and adjust the engine's fuel injection system. In engines equipped with a turbocharger (exhaust-driven blower), the exhaust system helps increase engine power and efficiency.

    After studying this unit, students on their own will be able to:

    Describe the basic parts and construction of an exhaust system

    Compare exhaust system design differences

    Correctly answer ASE type questions on exhaust system operation

    How Car Exhaust System Works


    Intake & Exhaust Good stuff starts at 4min but watch from the beginning 

    Please email me your answers:

    1. An exhaust system_____ engine operation and carries ____ to the rear of the car.

    Match each of the following exhaust system parts with its definition.

    1. _____ Heat Shield                        A. U-bolt for connecting parts of exhaust system

          3._____Catalytic Converter                B. Tubing that connects exhaust manifold to rest of system

          4._____Intermediate pipe                C. Chamber for dampening out pressure pulsations

          5._____Hangers                              D. Carries exhaust from muffler to rear of the car

          6._____ Header pipe                       E. Connects cylinder head exhaust ports to header pipe

    1. _____Tailpipe                              F. Prevents heat from transferring to other objects

          8._____Muffler Clamp                     G. Connects exhaust manifold to the tailpipe

          9._____Exhaust Manifold                H. Device for removing pollutants from exhaust

        10._____Muffler                              I. Pipe between catalytic converter and muffle                                           

                                                              J. Connects exhaust system to underside of car body

        11. Define the term exhaust back pressure.

        12. dual exhaust system is commonly used on small, high-fuel-economy engines. True or false?

    By 01May


    Week of 20APR Fuel Systems

    Please review this short demo on how engines work. This will help you connect the diffrent systems that we are exploring.

    4 stroke engines

    Now you are more prepared to move on to Fuel Systems:

    Fuel system components and operation

    1. A(n) ______draws fuel from the fuel tank and forces it to the fuel injector.

    2. What is another name for a "Fuel Sock" and what does it do?

    3. Where can electric fuel pumps be located?

    Fuel Injectors and how they work

    4. What is the differance in operation between a multiport fuel injection system and a direct fuel injection system?

    5. At sea level, the atmosphere exerts _____ psi of pressure on everything?

    6. Define the term INJECTOR PULSE WIDTH.

    7. An indirect injection system sprays fuel into the engine's combustion chambers. True or false?

    8. A(n) ______ injection system has fuel injectors in the intake ports.

    9. Glow plugs are use with what type of fuel system.

    10. Discribe the function of a PRE CHAMBER.

    Due date 24APR



    Week of 06APR Ignition Systems


    1. Define the terms PRIMARY CIRCUIT and SECONDARY CIRCUIT.

    2. An ignition system _____ is use to ignite the air/fuel mixture in the cumbustion chamber.

    3. A secondary voltage between _____ and _____volt is needed to operate a spark plug.

    4. Spark plug gap is the distance between the center electrode and the side electrode. True or false?

    5. a cold spark plug might be beneficial in an older engine that burns oil. True or false?


    6.A(n) _____ ignition system has one coil for every two engine cylinders.

    7. A waste-spark ignition fires two spark plugs at once. True or false?


    8. One coil assembly is mounted above each spark plug in the engine in a(n) _____ system.

    9. Explain the differance between coil pack and direct igniton systems.

    10.An electronic spark advance system uses engine sensors, an ignition control module and/or a cpmputer to adjust _____.




    Week of 30MAR

    All students are to review Charging System video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=plCPpRt-otE

    Email the answers to these questions by end of day Thursday:

    1. The alternator is a device for changing mechanical energy into ________ energy.

    2. Explain the function of alternator's rotor and stator.

    3. What is a diode?

    4. Alternator brushes ride on ________to feed current to the field windings.

    5. The alternator _________ changes alternating current into direct current.

               A. transistor     B. rectifier     C. stator     D. regulator

    6. An alternator ______consists of three groups of windings and produces the electrical output of the alternator.

    7. A voltage regulator controls alternator output by changing the amount of current flowing through the _______.

    8. The voltage regulator keeps alternator output at a preset charging voltage of approximately _____ to _____ volts.

    9. A(n) _____ voltage regulator is an electronic unit mounted inside or on the rear of alternator.

    10. List and describe two types of charge indicators.


    Get some Resume advise here: Resume Tips

    Send your next draft here when ready for review. mchilders@pittsburg.k12.ca.us 

    Final Resume is tenativly due 04MAY